Compare and contrast ethical perspectives of deontology consequentialism and virtue ethics

Whereas deontology and consequentialism are based on rules that try to give us the right action, virtue ethics makes central use of the concept of character.

virtue ethics vs deontology

A virtuous act is an act that hits the target of a virtue, which is to say that it succeeds in responding to items in its field in the specified way Smart and B. It may be that the virtue ethics of Hutcheson and Hume can be naturally extended into a modern political philosophy Hursthouse —91; Slote Should we separate the Siamese twins?

Dent, N.

Deontological ethics pdf

In other respects, Kantian virtue remains rather dissimilar from other conceptions of virtue. Yet so construed, metaethical contractualism as a method for deriving moral norms does not necessarily lead to deontology as a first order ethics. They could conceive of rights as giving agent-relative reasons to each actor to refrain from doing actions violative of such rights. The patient-centered deontologist can, of course, cite Kant's injunction against using others as mere means to one's end Kant John Harsanyi, for example, argues that parties to the social contract would choose utilitarianism over the principles John Rawls argues would be chosen Harsanyi Virtue ethics can avoid the problematic concepts of duty and obligation in favor of the rich concept of virtue. Yet even agent-centered versions face this paradox; having the conceptual resources of agency and agent-relative reasons is not the same as making it plausible just how a secular, objective morality can allow each person's agency to be so uniquely crucial to that person. A critique of Slote's agent-based virtue ethics. A law conception of ethics deals exclusively with obligation and duty. Agent-centered theories and the agent-relative reasons on which they are based not only enjoin each of us to do or not to do certain things; they also instruct me to treat my friends, my family, my promisees in certain ways because they are mine, even if by neglecting them I could do more for others' friends, families, and promisees. The virtuous agent acts as a role model and the student of virtue emulates his or her example. Also, we can cause or risk such results without intending them.

Acting virtuouslythat is, acting in accordance with reasonis acting in the way characteristic of the nature of human beings and this will lead to eudaimonia. Others have been concerned that such an open-handed approach to the virtues will make it difficult for virtue ethicists to come up with an adequate account of right action or deal with the conflict problem discussed above.

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Deontological Ethics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)