The need can be one of three types: 1 an external need, for instance when the teacher asks for an example; 2 a communicational need whereby the example serves as a means to explain mathematics to others; and 3 an intellectual need whereby the example serves to resolve a mathematical uncertainty or dilemma.
How has FPE policy influenced girls' participation and achievement in public primary schools? Secondly, the methodological underpinning of the study is derived largely from comparative and international orientations to research that draws attention to the importance of detailed qualitative fieldwork, and the observation and analysis of educational practice in context.
The strategies: To construct examples, students used one of five strategies: trial and error, educated trial, modification, immediate retrieval, and search. This study aims at identifying dominant factors and discourses that shape the behaviour of children and their commitment towards schooling.
A strong case is also made for the conduct and analysis of policy research in PNG and other developing countries. On the one hand, the international literature on small states has generally portrayed them as being constrained by size, remoteness and dependence on external factors.
School retention in basic education: a rural ethnic minority case study in Botswana Nkobi Owen Pansiri, Graduate School of Education, EdD Student Low retention in basic education in Botswana particularly in rural ethnic minority areas is a complex educational issue.
The participants' construction and reconstruction of their identities were guided by their conceptualizations of what it meant to be a teacher and what it meant to teach.
The transposition of inclusion: an analysis of the relationship between curriculum practice and curriculum prescription in Papua New Guinea. Moreover the study suggests that, often, staff appraisal exercises are not accorded the level of attention they deserve.
Data from observations, interviews, focus groups and documentary sources are analysed in the interpretative tradition.These dimensions involve a total of ten teachers and 11 additional stakeholders. This holistic, qualitative study investigates the Unified Examination Policy through the lens of teachers of English as a Foreign Language by seeking to identify their perceptions and understandings of this new policy, as implemented during the academic year. Implications for future policy and practice within the territories are examined in detail and broader conclusions are drawn concerning the related theoretical and methodological literature and priorities for future research. The analysis explores and compares issues within the levels of each system that support, challenge, or constrain attempts to improve teaching and learning. Factors affecting the formulation and implementation of the educational reform in Papua New Guinea Willy Yamuna Ako, Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol - unpublished EdD This study investigates the policy-making and implementation of educational reforms in developing countries, and more specifically the nature and implementation of the Educational Reform in Papua New Guinea. A theoretical framework, which is developed in chapter two, guides the study. A postcolonial analytical framework is developed from two bodies of theoretical literature. His research not only involves documentary analysis but carrying out a case study of two rural primary schools in the Eastern Highlands. This includes characterization of the situations in which students choose to give examples, the actual ways in which they construct examples, and the interplay between the strategies they employ and their understanding of the mathematical issues. Proponents of EFA initiative emphasize that the education of women and girls in particular is inextricably linked to delayed early marriages, reduction of maternal deaths, and prevention of unsafe sex and its related consequences. The research applies a comparative case study approach, drawing on fieldwork in the Indian State of Andhra Pradesh, The Gambia and Tanzania, where donor funded programmes are being implemented. However, other states' accountability policies, the proficiency performance standards may not have any relationship with principals' influence on instruction and their facilitating teacher learning.